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Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Status of Rice Production in Kashmir Division of J&k State


1. Rice (Oryza sativa L) is most extensively cultivated cereal crop in the world. It is a staple food of about 2.4 billion or more. In South Asia as whole rice provides 23% per capita energy and 16% per capita protein. Its protein content is modest 7% but it provides minerals, vitamins and fiber too.

Table 1. Rice Production Statistics in the world

Country 1994 yield/hact/hac 1998 yield/hact/hac Differencet/ hac Percentage Increase over years

China 5.9 6.1 0.2 3.28

India 2.8 2.89 0.01 0.35

Indonesia 4.3 4.1 -0.2 -4.88

Vietnam 3.5 3.9 0.4 10.26

Japan 6.8 6.4 -0.4 -6.25

Unites States 6.7 6.3 -0.4 -6.35

Korea 6.1 6.9 +0.8 11.59

Pakistan 2.5 2.8 +0.3 10.71

Egypt 7.9 - - -

Iran 4.4 - - -

Peru 5.8 - - -

Table 2. Rice Production in Indian States

1994 1998 Difference

West Bengal 1.9 2.2 +0.3

Haryana 2.5 2.8 +0.3

Punjab 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Tamil Nadu 2.3 3.0 +0.7

Andhra Pradesh 2.6 2.9 +0.3

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir 2.5 2.8 +0.3

Jammu 1.6 1.9 +0.3

Jammu and Kashmir had the uniq ue distinction of having introduced land reforms. About 1.82 lakh hectares of land were distributed. Out of it about 0.94 lakh hectare were distributed free of cost among peasants. Although absentee landlordism was abolished. Over years a neo-land holders have come into existence which are comparable to absentee land owners if not landlords holding large “Jagirs”.

The reform was bound to achieve the twin purpose of giving the cultivator his rightful place in the social system and also ensure more efficient utilization of the state’s resources.

The main objective to achieve self-sufficiency in terms of rice production, although leaped forward from mere few lakh tones to 0.86 million tones. However, the major break through has been hampered due to various causes. A problem cause analysis done by us in the past could be summarized in Fig. 1.


Rice production in the State of Jammu & Kashmir is pre dominantly a mono-cropped activity. The area is about 40% in Jammu Division & 60% in Kashmir Division. The irrigation availability is around 91% as against 99% in Haryana & Punjab. The Haryana and Punjab irrigation is assured, which means free from climatic changes, as most of it come from underground water sources. Our irrigation potential in Kashmir for rice is snow bound. Most of it is through canal system, which dry up during draughts and flood during heavy rains and excessive snow.

In spite of the climatic changes over years Rice production has registered growth which may fluctuate with climatic conditions. Our food grain production of 22.59 lakh tones by the end of 9th plan registered a quantitum jump over 8th plan productivity of 13.56 lakh tones. A similar up ward trend is discernible with regard to chemical fertilizers which have gone up from 43400 metric tones to 72400 metric tones during the same period.

The common enhancement fa ctors like;

1. Improved seeds including hybrids both seed production, certification and distribution among farmers needs critical evaluation.

2. The use of production recommendations by the farmers needs effective transfer of technology mechanism with wide spread use of electronic and print media along with on the job-training modules to Agriculture Extension Workers.

3. The whether dependent irrigation system has to be replaced with permanent or semi-assured irrigation potential especially in Khandi belts.

4. Timely supply of inputs like fertilizers, weedicides, fungicides, pesticides, along with fortification of humus (animal waste or organic manure use) & or other essential nutrients like potash, zinc sulphate etc. as per soil testing reports.

Needs and solutions

Low productivity causes: analysis scenario can be seen Fig. 1

a) Non-availability of quality paddy seed

Total land under rice

Kashmir Division 1.61 hectares

Distribution cropping area in hac

High Altitude - 0.3 lac hectare

Low altitude - 1.3 lac hectare

Seed requirement

Certified seed : Seed rate 60 Kg/hac

i.e. 60 x 1.60 hac = 96 lac kgs

For 10% replacement/year = 9.6 lac Kg.

9,600 quintals

say 10,000 quintals

Thus we need certified seed in the ratio of;

High altitude rice varieties 2200 quintals

Low altitude rice 7800 quintals

Total 10000 quintals

For above certified seed we need Foundation Seed approx.

High altitude belt 50 quintals land

Low altitude belt 150 quintals 100 kanals - SKUAST, may produce it

Breeder seed needs

High altitude varieties 1.5q land

Low altitude varieties 4.5q 10 kansls – SK UAT may produce it

Certified seed need 10,000 quintals

Land 2000- 3000 kanals

Say 5000 kanals

10 seed villages of 500 kanals in 6 Districts – can be used to produce it under joint supervision of SKUAST-K & Department Officers


Allow post-graduate unemployed graduate 12 to supervision village seed production under SKUAST scientist and seed certification staff of department.


Director Extension Education

Document II : Targets and achievements

Targets & Objectives:

a) The food availability per person per day as per the ICMR recommendations is 420 grams. The food produced in J&K in 301 gms/day/person. Therefore, we have roughly 1/3rd food grain shortage in the State. However, the shortages may be higher in view of the report of Dr. M.S.Swaminathan (2003) which says that the consumption of food grains in J&a mp;K is higher than those recommended by ICMR norms. In rural Kashmir rice consumption is 489 gm (per person per day and in urban it is 428 gm per person per day). Thus per capita rice consumption is higher than recommended ICMR norms.

b) Projecting the population of 40 million with rice as staple food, in an area of 1.60 lac hectares for rice we need a yield potential of 5 tonnes/ha


Assuming 500 gm rice per person per day, we would need 2 quintals paddy per person per annum. i.e for 40 lac people, we need 80 lac quintel or 8 lac tones. An area of 1.60 lac hectares under rice would need roughly 5t/hac production to meet our requirements. With the present productivity of 2.5t/h in Kashmir division, the target is difficult but could be achieved. Yet with increase in population over years, we may find “Self sufficiency a dream only”

To attain productivity of Rice at the rate of 5t/hac both in higher a nd lower belts. This would need replacement of present seed varieties in the farmer’s fields with higher yielding varieties evolved by SKUAST. A modest approach to replace the 10% paddy seed each year can be executed under present infrastructure and land availability. The question of future sustainability of rice production to feed increasing population may need further increase in seed replacement schedules by 20 -30% each year which may need a proper planning and organization.

Aim for future : Self sufficiency in Rice production

Target : 5t/hac production of Rice


1. Under farmers field we have attained a yield of 3-5 t/hac using improved seed. The details of the investigation at formers field and by the farmer may be seen - Table 2.1

The improved package of practices prepared by SKUAST and when used by farmers resulted into total returns of Rs. 84,000/hac as against Rs. 54,000/hac by usual farme rs practices. Thus under present conditions a net profit of Rs. 63,500/hac was attainable from Rice production which indicates rice production a profitable enterprise – Table 2.2

2. During Kharif 2002 & 2003, the three SKUAST varieties yield 6t/hac under farmers fields. These minikit trails were conducted jointly by SKUAST & Agricultural Department experts in all the 6 districts of the valley. They were monitored and discussed in the Zonal Research Extension Advisory Committee meetings held in 2002 & 2003. The details variety wise yields/hac are shown in Table 2.3 for lower belt rice fields Table 2.4 for higher altitude rice fields.

An review of the two tables indicate that under upper rice land belts (high altitudes) the SKUAST varieties have proved a potential of 4.5 q/hac and under low rice zone, lower belts, a higher potential of 6t/hac was attained. The two combined suffice to our present needed yield under yield conditions on an average 5t/hac. Thus, the target is attainable & achievable.

3. Under scientific farm conditions at SKUAST Rice Research Station, Khudwani, a yield potential of 8.8 t/hac was achieved Table 2.5, otherwise too under field conditions with use of production recommendation a yield potential of 6.8 t/hac was reported Table 2.6

Under Village Linked Extension Education programmes, the farmers practices yielded 3.3 t/hac and when one or two intervention like replace of wooden plough with Shalimar plough was made a yield potential of 5.4 t/hac was achieved. Thus, under present status of technology already demonstrated to farmers through Agriculture Department, a yield potential required 5 – 6 t/hac has been demonstrated. Now it is for effective extension mechanism at Directorate of Agriculture level to extend the technological awareness. For detailed policy projections, document III may be seen.

4. Hybrid Seed Propagation
The hybrid rice production technology in China has yielded 9.9 t/hac of rice. This coupled with growth duration of 123 days and milling recovery rate of 68.7% do promise to boost our productivity once more as in 1970 through use of Chinese hybrid seed technology but this hybrid technology is webbed with certain problems too.

a. Use new seeds every year: It is a seed dependant technological intervention, which under our present set up may prove more failure than success on its wide use. However, for pilot field studies and under research management farms we may continue its use as future long term strategy.

b. Seed rate is 20Kg per hectare as against 60 Kg per hectare, but seeds harvested from previous hybrid crops can not be used. Until our farmers are fully trained and acquainted with the technology. Its use needs to be limited to Govt, University or progressive farmers farms only.

c. The advantage of hybrid seed with less seed rate is hidden in its hybrid vigor potential. These seeds have rapid root growth and greater leaf area development potential. Thus more number of spikelets per unit area, increase productivity.

Detailed requirements for hybrid rice cultivation at present are beyond the capacity of our farmers. A detailed description on hybrid seeds in China can be seen in any web page & is reproduced herein for reference (Annexure-1)

Performance of participatory Seed Production Programme conducted in two Districts of Kashmir Valley during Khairf, 2004 (Crop Rice)
Crop Name of farmers Village Variety Class of seed Area sown {ha) Qty. of seed product,q/kanal or q/0.05 ha)

Paddy 1 Nazir Ahmad DarS/O. Habib Ullah Dar Chatterhama Jehlum Breeders seed 0.2 4.50

2 Mohd.Maqbool Wani -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.75

3 Gh.Nabi DarS/O.Ab.Rehman Dar -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.75

4 Ab.Rashid DarS/O Ab.Gaffar Dar -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.87

5 Mohd Rafiq DarS/O Ab.Gaffar Dar -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.50

6 Parveez Ahmad MirS/O Gh.Mohd.Mir -do- Chenab Foundation seed -do- 3.00

7 Mohd. Ashraf MirS/O Ab.Razak Mir -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.60

8 Ab.Ahad BhatS/O Mohd Ismail Bhat Telbal Jehlum -do- -do- 3.00

9 Mudasir Ahmad Bhat -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.60

10 Gh.Nabi bhatS/O Ali Mohd Bhat -do- Chenab Foundation seed -do- 4.00

11 Gh.Nabi Wani -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.60

12 Ab.Rehman BhatS/O Abdul Aziz Bhat Khudwani Juhlum Found ation seed -do- 4.00

13 Ab.Rehman BhatS/o Mohd.Sidiq Bhat -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.00

14 Bashir Ahmad BhatS/O Md.Shaban Bhat -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.00

15 Mohd Shaban Mattoo S/O Gh.Rasool Mattoo -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.00

16 Gh.Mohd.DarS/O Gh.Rasool Bhat -do- -do- -do- -do- 4.0

17 Shabir Ahmad BhatS/O Gh.Rasool Bhat Shalimar Chenab Breeders seed -do- 3.50

18 Ah.Ahad BhatS/O Riyaz Ahmad Bhat Shalimar Chenab Breeder seed 0.2 3.00

19 Bashir Ahmad LoneS/O Gh.Nabi Lone -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.60

20 Md.Maqbool MirS/O Gh.Rasool Mir -do- -do- -do- -do- 3.0

Cost of Production and Returns ha-1

Cost/Unit Field

Experimental station with approved package of practice Farmers practice

Total direct cost of production per hectare (up to packaging) Rs.20,500/- Rs.14,500/-

Total return/ha Rs.84,000/- Rs.59,000/-

Net profit Rs.63,500/- Rs.44,500/-

Average performance of Minikit Results of Paddy over the

Valley (6 Districts during Kharif 2002 & Kharif 2003.

A. Lower Belts

S.N Name of the Cultivar Yield/hacKharif Kharif2002 2003 Mean Rank %increase over check(Jehlum)

1. SKAU-105 63.63 62.35 62.99 1 10.51% over Jehlum and 17% over Chinab (SKAU-23)

2. SKAU-337 63.73 56.71 60.22 2 5% & 13.6% Respectively.

3. SKAU-27(Jehlum) 57.84 56.23 57.00 3

4. SKAU-23 (Chinab) ------ 53.21 53.21 4

Average performance of Minikit Results of Paddy over the Valley (6 Districts during Kharif 2002 & Kharof 2003).

B. Higher Belts

S.No. Name of the cultivar Yield /hac.Kharif 2002 Kharif 2003 Mean Rank % increase over 332 & Khosar (check entries)

1. K-312 43.33 42.07 42.70 3 Both the entries i.e K312 & K475 have yielded below over the check entrie s

2. K-475 45.59 41.62 43.06 2

3. K-332 42.04 42.71 42.35 4

4. K-429 (Kohsar) 50.17 42.81 46.05 1

Average performance of SKAU-105 in District Yield Trial conducted at Rice Research & Regional Station Khudwani Anantnag from 1989-2003.

SN Vty. 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003

1. SKAU-105 68.52 67.06 70.18 60.20 62.50 70.60 67.75 72.20 75.70 79.20 84.20 88.60

2. SKAU-5Check 52.96 55.40 48,57 53.00 52.50 63.05 51.94 - - - - -

3. Jehlum Check - - - - - - - 63.54 66.90 69.53 70.78 74.50

Seed Supplied to the different KVK’s for multiplication by the Division of Plant Breeding & Genetics

S.No. Name of the KVK’s Crop Variety Class of seed Qty. supplied (Kgs)

1. KVK, Malangpora (Pulwama) Maize C15 FS 12

Paddy Jehlum FS 30

2. KVK, Pombay (Anantnag) Paddy K332 BS 160

Kohsaar BS 92

Maize C15 FS 50

Shalimar KGMaize-1 BS -

Shalimar KG Maize-2 BS -

French Bean Shalimar French Bean -1 BS -

Cowpea Shalimar Cowpea-1 BS 5

Moong Shalimar Moong-1 BS 5

3. KVK, Srinagar Maize C15 FS 15

4. KVK, Kupwara Paddy Jehlum FS 80

Minikit results of check cultivars


Lower Belts Higher belts

Jehlum Kohsar / K 332

S. No. Districts n Yield (t/ha) n Yield (t/ha)

1. Srinagar 6 5.9 2 6.8

2. Budgam 4 6.2 3 4.2

3. Anantnag 6 4.6 2 (K 332) 3.9

4. Pulwama 6 6.8 2 4.0

5. Baramulla 6 5.8 2 4.0

6. Kupwara 5 5.3 1 6.2

B. Experimental yield _____ 6 – 6.5 --------- 4.2 – 4.7

Critical gaps (B-A) ------- 0.7 -1.2 Nil

C. State average irrespective of cultivars 2.1 Critical g aps 3- 4 t /ha-1

D. Production farm average May be 2.5 -do-

E. Yield average in farmer’s plot through various trial by SKUAST-K under IVLP programme 3.3 (farmersPractice) 5.4(With technological intervation)

Document No. III Future Policies

A. Technology Transfer in agro-ecosystems perspective

1. To meet the growing needs of food grains for increasing population emphasis should be given on small production systems to achieve sustainability and optimum resource use. Benefits of agro-ecosystem analysis in the form of resource inventory, identification of crops, cropping patterns and potential production zones, problem and causes analysis for low productivity etc., need to be considered.

2. Small production systems are characterized by production basically meant for self consumption. Training activity need to be modified to achieve increased productivity in mixed farming systems. Product divers ification through introduction of various alternate crops and income diversification of small farmers especially rural youth and school dropouts by offering training on farm income generation activities like introduction of back yard poultry, wormiculture, honey, mushroom production, goatry, dairy etc.

3. In case of green revolution production system (Progressive farmers) technology transfer would be geared up to achieve maximum productivity of individual crop. Training activity need to be further strengthened by incorporation of various promising technologies. For example in case of rice, introduction of hybrid rice production technology for breaking yield barriers. Training activity on hybrid rice production techniques can become the part of school curriculum. Similarly demonstrations should also be simultaneously taken up to prove the yield potentiality of new crops and new technologies/components. Multi-component demonstrations need to be further strengthen ed. Extension activities like field days, film shows would also add further strength in this direction.

1. Emphasis on commercial production systems would include identification of crops and products which have demand in international market like medicinal aromatic rice of export value etc. Training programmes and demonstrations would include technologies for production of various crops having export value with due regard to quality and less pesticide residue effects. More focus should be given to eco-friendly technologies like integrated pest management trough IPM techniques, integrated nutrient management through use of vermicompost and organic farming. Linkages of progressive farmer groups with renowned export firms would be established to make export process more transparent.

2. Farmers would be equipped with safe and suitable technologies for increased production of such items which have global market. This is essential requirement under glob alization under GATT especially to safeguard human health with minimal pesticide or other residues.

3. Experience from KVK, Medak in Andhra Pradesh suggests that rural women play an important role in preservation of biodiversity of various plans having value in terms of food, high productivity, resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses apart from usefulness in treatment of various diseases of plants, animals and human beings. Efforts have already been made in the form of creating awareness for identification of varieties, species and plants. Women work force training is still a weak link in our Rice Production system.

KVK’s may prepare farmers to preserve biodiversity. This needs proper linkages with lead institutes. The main objective would be to establish an altogether innovative concept of “Rural genebanks” by proper harnessing of indigenous wisdom and scientific talent.

4. Education & Training
Rural women constitute major workforce in Indian agriculture. Studies

conducted and data generated in this regard suggests that in spite of their significant role in food production, value addition, conservation of bio-diversity and environment etc, they remained as invisible farmers. The invisibility of women as a farmer is due to the fact that women are engaged mostly in production activity but they don’t have a role to play in remunerative activity. We must focus on effective use of small tools and implements to reduce women drudgery, training on income generation activities to facilitate greater role in decision making and economic independence of rural women. Efforts would also be made to utilize their un-exploited potential in conservation of germplasm through establishment of rural genebanks and linking them to national repository by proper training and guidance.

5. Information Technology

Revolution in information tec hnology and India’s contribution in this regard has created edge over the globe. It is proposed to utilize this powerful tool to bring revolutions in transfer of technology process in J&K. A beginning has to be made. The main agenda here would be to evolve an innovative concept, “e-Farmer, E-KVK and E-extension” for rapid and effective communication and transfer of technology.

6. Investments made in the past in the field of agricultural research, education and extension system has now created large “standing capacity” for India, in terms of availability of scientific man power and infrastructure.

Globalization of agriculture and advancement in the field of information technology has set new agenda for generation, assessment and dissemination of technologies in agricultural and allied fields. Hence, there is an urgent need to reorient the present extension system in general and the technology transfer process in Par ticular

7. The following broader areas need to be set into motion for technology transfer

· Rural income generation

· Environment preservation

· Conservation of biodiversity

· Sustainability of natural resources

· Diversification

· Improvement in status of women and other disadvantaged groups

· Exploitation of commercially viable technologies and enhancement of export potential

8. Reformation model Annexure I, SKUAST component of Broad Base Agric.Extension Model Annexure II & other documents are enclosed.

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